[KoMG]DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation in hematologic differentiation and transformation

Abstract : Maintenance of the balance of DNA methylation and demethylation is fundamental for normal cellular development and function. Members of the Ten-Eleven-Translocation (TET)
family proteins are Fe(II)-dependent and 2-oxoglutaratedependent dioxygenases that catalyze sequential oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC)
and subsequent oxidized derivatives in DNA. In addition to their roles as intermediates in DNA demethylation, these oxidized methylcytosines are novel epigenetic modifications of DNA.
DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation profiles are markedly disrupted in a wide range of cancers but how these changes are related to the pathogenesis of cancers is still ambiguous. In this review, we discuss the current understanding of TET protein functions in normal and malignant hematopoietic development and the ongoing questions to be resolved.

Authors : Myunggon Ko1, Jungeun An2 and Anjana Rao3,4,5